Algorithm : predefined sequence of faces rotations and which, applied to the cube allow to go from one state to another where you have solved a part of the cube, or to make progress in the resolution : between each step of the resolution you apply an algorithm one time or more in order to go to the next step. The algorithm has to be applied without rotating the cube : only its faces must be turned. Edge cubes : little cube in the middle of one edge of the Rubik's cube. The edge cubes have to facelets. There are 12 edge cubes in a Rubik's cube. Center piece : a center piece is the square situated in the middle of a face of the Rubik's cube. There are 6 edge cubes, each one has one color. Corner cube : cube situated in a corner of the Rubik's cube. There are 8 corner cubes, each one has 3 colors. Layer : put your cube on a table : vertically, there are three layers of little cubes. I will call them as follows : the upper layer (or also first face), the middle or second layer, ... Layer by layer method : method that consists of solving the first layer at the beginning , then you solve the middle layer, and then the last layer. Some methods in which you start solving the second layer before having completed the first one are all the same classified in the layer by layer methods. Rotation : we are speaking of the rotation of a face of the Rubik's cube. There are three different rotations for a given face : a 90 degrees turn, a 90 degrees turn (the opposite) and a 180 degrees turn. in the most widespread notation, a positive turn is a clockwise turn.
Shortcut : succession of several predefined rotations
(generally 2, 3 or 4) which are applied extremely quickly in a single movement.
Example: RU'R Speedcubing : it is the term for solving a Rubik's cube with a simple goal : solving it the faster you can. In order to do this, (speed)cubists invent some fast solving methods using few movements, but in return you must learn a lot of algorithms.

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